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Some neurons such as photoreceptor cells, for example, do not have myelinated axons that conduct action potentials.Other unipolar neurons found in invertebrates do not even have distinguishing processes such as dendrites.When ionotropic receptors are activated, certain ion species such as Na to enter the postsynaptic neuron, which depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane.If more of the same type of postsynaptic receptors are activated, then more Na will enter the postsynaptic membrane and depolarize cell.There are two families of receptors: ionotropic and metabotropic receptors.Ionotropic receptors are a combination of a receptor and an ion channel.In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.Since memories are postulated to be represented by vastly interconnected networks of synapses in the brain, synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemical foundations of learning and memory (see Hebbian theory).

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These allow Ca2 ions to diffuse through these channels and bind with synaptic vesicles within the terminal boutons.Moreover, the distinctions based on function between neurons and other cells such as cardiac and muscle cells are not helpful.Thus, the fundamental difference between a neuron and a nonneuronal cell is a matter of degree.Several techniques such as intracellular recording, patch-clamp, and voltage-clamp technique, pharmacology, confocal imaging, molecular biology, two photon laser scanning microscopy and Ca2 imaging have been used to study activity at the cellular level.Cellular neuroscience examines the various types of neurons, the functions of different neurons, the influence of neurons upon each other, how neurons work together.

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