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Espelund is actually a mining engineer, not an archaeologist.
Arne Wang Espelund, a professor emeritus at NTNU’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering, has been interested in iron making since the 1970s.
But even older furnaces are found nearby, in Populonia in Italy and Burgenland in Austria.“I believe the technology for extracting iron must have originated outside of Norway,” he says.
His opinion is reinforced by the fact that no one has yet found any evidence of experimentation with making iron in Norway.
However, a certain percentage of the iron remains in the slag, as Fe O, which ensures the quality of the iron.
Slag from three places in Norway, and from Iceland, Catalonia and Austria all have a remarkably similar composition. Espelund has introduced the so called fayalite fraction to characterize the slag.